Principles of 3D laser scanning measurement

3D laser scanning adopts a non-contact high-speed laser measurement method to obtain geometric and image data of terrain or complex objects. The collected point cloud data and image data are processed and analyzed through post-processing software, and converted into three-dimensional spatial position coordinates in absolute coordinate systems or to establish three-dimensional visualization models of complex and irregular scenes. This saves time and effort, and point clouds can also output various data formats, As a data source for spatial databases and meeting the needs of different applications. 3D laser scanning technology can present real-world scenes in a 1:1 point cloud format on a computer, hence it is also known as real scene replication technology.

Principles of 3D laser scanning measurement

Principle of pulse scanning measurement

The laser emits a pulse signal, which reaches the surface of the object and reflects back. The scanner receives the signal and directly measures the flight time. Based on the laser propagation speed, the distance can be calculated. The advantage is fast scanning speed and high accuracy, while the disadvantage is that the scanning distance is relatively close, usually ranging from tens to hundreds of meters.

Phase scanning measurement principle

The phase-type laser ranging is an indirect measurement of the laser propagation time by measuring the phase difference formed by the modulated laser signal propagating back and forth over the measured distance, and then calculating the measured distance based on the laser propagation speed. The advantage is the long scanning distance, which can reach several kilometers, but the disadvantage is the slow scanning speed.

The advantages of 3D laser scanning technology include:

Fast speed: The scanning speed of the 3D scanner can reach millions of points per second;

High precision: The data collection accuracy is high with an accuracy of ± 2mm;

Strong intuitiveness: The collected point cloud data not only contains spatial information (X, Y, Z), but also color information (R, G, B) and reflectance values (I), giving people a sense of scene reproduction;

Strong applicability: less affected by external factors, it can also be measured under no light conditions;

Diversity of achievements: Multiple results can be output from one measurement without the need for repeated measurements.

Non contact measurement: Stay away from hazardous areas and fully ensure the safety of equipment and operators.

Application fields of 3D laser scanning technology:

· Industrial manufacturing

· Cultural heritage

· Structural measurement

· Infrastructure

· Digital City

Reverse restore petrochemical pipelines, complete factory datatization, provide original 3D data for the design, renovation and maintenance of factory facilities, conduct collision detection for pipeline facilities, provide feasibility analysis reports, build digital factory data prototypes, and conduct virtual safety drills. ·


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